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Maintenance Of Bearings During Mechanical Maintenance

2018-10-25 18:15:56

Four-Row Tapered Roller Bearing

Bearing is an important part of modern mechanical equipment, which is directly related to the normal play of the function of machinery. It is of great significance to prolong the service life of mechanical equipment and improve the working efficiency of machinery and equipment. Based on the analysis of common bearing fault types, this paper tries to discuss the bearing maintenance measures and the matters needing attention in maintenance.

Bearings are the most common parts of machinery and equipment, but they are also the most important parts. It supports the normal relative motion of the mechanical parts of the shaft through its central function. As the bearing in the mechanical equipment used in the process of continuous operation for a long time, the damage rate is relatively high, in the mechanical equipment failure occupies a large proportion. Once the bearing fails, it will affect the performance of the mechanical equipment, and may even cause other aspects of mechanical equipment failure.

First, bearing failure type and maintenance measures analysis

Bearing fault has diversity, according to fault type in-depth analysis of the cause of the failure, in order to take scientific and reasonable measures to deal with the problems, is to ensure that the bearings are effectively maintained. In the actual situation, the bearing failure and corresponding maintenance measures are mainly the following categories.

First, the bearing operation surface stripping. This is the bearing in the load rotation, the inner, outer Ring raceway surface or rolling decent peel off each other, showing the phenomenon of fish squamous. The cause of stripping is usually caused by heavy load causing rolling fatigue, the installation process of invasion of foreign bodies, clearance is too small. Maintenance should consider re-study of the conditions of use, clearance and the design of the surrounding bearings, further testing the shaft and bearing box machining accuracy, inspection installation methods and lubrication methods.

Second, bearing heat discoloration. When the bearing is continuously operating at high temperature, the color of the bearing raceway wheel or rolling element and cage will become black or blue, and the burn cannot be rotated. In most cases, the bearing clearance is too small, the lubrication in the bearing is not qualified, the load or preload is too large, and the roller deflection, and other causes. Maintenance should be appropriate to increase bearing clearance, improve bearing heat, check the type of lubricant and injection amount, and prevent positioning errors.

Third, the bearing cracks. The so-called crack refers to the rolling wheel or rolling element of the bearing cracks, such as continued use will develop more cracks. There are many reasons for cracking: bearing shock load is too large or excessive interference, the bearing itself or the use of steel there is a quality defect, the installation side of poor precision, such as corner circle is too large, the installation did not use a special assembly sleeve and using iron rod direct tapping caused by the foreign body card into impurities. Maintenance should overhaul bearing material and conditions of use, set appropriate interference, improve installation and use of methods, and consider the use of lubricants to prevent friction formation cracks.

Four, bearing rust. The surface of the bearing is partially or completely rusty, and the rolling body presents a saw-like rust. Corrosion is usually due to improper storage, one is the failure of the sealing device to the water, acid solution and other impurities immersed in the bearing, the second is the use of anti-rust agent dosage, the third is the use of hand directly with the bearing contact. Maintenance should strengthen the sealing performance of the device, regularly check the lubrication situation, the proper addition of lubricating grease, and in strict accordance with the provisions of the use of bearings.

V, the bearing cage is damaged. Due to improper assembly or use, excessive torque load, poor lubrication and other reasons, the bearing cage may be deformed, even the rivet loose fracture, increased its friction with the rolling body, so that the rolling body can not be rolling. Maintenance should focus on the type and dosage of lubricants, assembly methods, whether the use of methods to meet the requirements, re-test the shaft and bearing rigidity, if necessary, re-select the replacement of the cage, or replace the bearing.

Six, bearing creep. Bearing creep is the outer diameter of the bearing or the internal diameter of the slip caused the bearing discoloration or caused the mirror, so that the bearing in the operation of the jam occurred. In general, the cause of the bearing creep is mainly due to the lack of interference at the surface, the abnormal temperature of bearing operation, the ring is not strong enough, the load of the ambassador rolling surface power. For the maintenance of bearing creep, it is necessary to re-set the interference, check the shaft and bearing box accuracy.

Seven, bearing card injury. The so-called bearing card wound, that is, the bearing ring flange and roller end face abrasions, making its surface rough, and accompanied by a small solution. The main causes of the card injury are: insufficient lubricant or lubrication method, excessive axial load makes the flange surface broken oil, roller deflection and roller slide too large. Maintenance should focus on the type and dosage of lubricants, set appropriate pre-pressure, and strengthen the sealing performance of the bearing.

Second, bearing maintenance of other matters

(a) Maintenance steps

Bearing maintenance can be performed in the following four steps.

The first is the disassembly of the bearing. For the disassembly of separable bearings, the inner and outer rings are separated, and for non-separable bearings, the bearing rings with smaller resistance can be removed gradually. After removal, the lubricant should be treated to prevent the bearing from being oxidized and corroded.

The second is the cleaning of the bearings. Remove the bearings, the first through the coarse cleaning of the bearings on the adhesive and grease, and then by fine cleaning to remove oil.

Again is the maintenance of the bearing. To the bearing foreign bodies, clearance, cage wear, raceway surface or rolling decent state, bearing internal lubricant and so on to do a full detailed inspection, find out the cause of the bearing failure, select the appropriate measures to repair.

Finally, the bearing is installed. Proper installation is the precondition of normal use of bearings. Maintenance personnel to fully understand and grasp the bearing of the mechanism and installation requirements, familiar with the technical points, in particular, pay attention to the installation direction of the bearing, because some bearings do not have obvious external characteristics, installation of the high probability of the reverse, once installed reverse, the work of machinery and equipment will have a certain impact. At the same time, also choose in relatively dry, dust less environment in the installation of bearings to reduce the probability of foreign invasion.

(ii) Maintenance system

To do the maintenance and maintenance of bearings, so that bearings can always be in good condition, maintenance of the normal operation of machinery and equipment is particularly important. We should establish and perfect the bearing maintenance system, make the bearing maintenance normal, standardized and standardized; It is necessary to clarify the maintenance period, maintenance measures, maintenance measures, technical requirements, maintenance effects and other matters in the maintenance system, and strictly implement the maintenance system in order to maintain the normal operation of machinery and equipment and avoid the occurrence of safety accidents.

(iii) Professional skills of maintenance personnel

The professional level of maintenance personnel has a direct effect on the quality of bearing maintenance. Maintenance personnel own technical level is low, the bearing knowledge and maintenance technology is not in place, not in-depth, so that mechanical equipment in the event of bearing failure, it is difficult to correctly judge the cause of the failure and take effective maintenance measures, maintenance quality is not high, maintenance efficiency is low. Therefore, should improve the maintenance personnel training and assessment of the importance of, popularize bearing maintenance knowledge, improve the related maintenance technology, so that the maintenance staff can be more experienced and more sophisticated technology to deal with bearing failure maintenance needs.

Third, conclusion

To sum up, bearing maintenance is an important part of mechanical maintenance, related to the normal operation of machinery, service life and production efficiency, must cause a high degree of attention. In the actual production process, the bearing for different reasons have different faults, must start from the actual situation, scientific analysis of the type of failure and the cause, to select the appropriate maintenance methods, and in accordance with the correct procedures and procedures, to effectively remove the fault, complete bearing maintenance. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the system construction of bearing maintenance and the construction of talent team, improve the soft power of bearing maintenance, improve the maintenance level of bearing and ensure the maintenance effect.

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